Andromeda has roughly 14 satellite galaxies, which orbit the galactic disk. During this epoch, its rate of star formation would have been very high, to the point of becoming a luminous infrared galaxy for roughly 100 million years. Globular clusters are the compact group of stars in a spherical shape that orbit a galactic core. … The nearest spiral galaxy to our own. In 1864 Sir William Huggins noted that the spectrum of Andromeda differed from that of a gaseous nebula. Knowing the sizes and temperatures of the stars, they were able to measure their absolute magnitude. A star in the Andromeda galaxy has a “companion” with six times the mass of Jupiter. [112], PA-99-N2 was a microlensing event detected in the Andromeda Galaxy in 1999. Binoculars can reveal some larger structures of the galaxy and its two brightest satellite galaxies, M32 and M110. The virial mass of the Andromeda Galaxy is of the same order of magnitude as that of the Milky Way, at 1 trillion solar masses (2.0×1042 kilograms). The universe is a vast expanse of space which contains all of everything in existence. The Andromeda is the largest galaxy in the Local Group (Local Group is a group of around 55 galaxies, including Milky Way, Andromeda, and other large galaxies). In 1922 Ernst Öpik presented a method to estimate the distance of Andromeda using the measured velocities of its stars. In 2012, a microquasar, a radio burst emanating from a smaller black hole was detected in the Andromeda Galaxy. (We do have closer neighbor galaxies, but they are much smaller. [19] Our Milky Way also has some satellite galaxies. Andromeda is the most distant object outside to Milky Way that we are able to see the naked eye. Your email address will not be published. The Andromeda is the, The current calculation based on the dynamical mass measurements shows that the mass of the Andromeda Galaxy is around 1.6 ×10, It has been estimated that the Andromeda Galaxy will collide with our Galaxy Milky Way in about 4 billion years. Alternative spiral structures have been proposed such as a single spiral arm[77] or a flocculent[78] pattern of long, filamentary, and thick spiral arms. They are likely to have accreted and assimilated about 100–200 low-mass galaxies during the past 12 billion years. Andromeda and the Triangulum Galaxy had a very close passage 2–4 billion years ago. As it is, Scientists have been used several methods to estimate the distance of Andromeda from the earth. [56][57][58], In addition to stars, Andromeda Galaxy's interstellar medium contains at least 7.2×109 M☉[59] in the form of neutral hydrogen, at least 3.4×108 M☉ as molecular hydrogen (within its innermost 10 kiloparsecs), and 5.4×107 M☉ of dust. The Tempest can land on seven worlds, as well as the Nexus space station and, eventually, Port Meridian on the Meridia… The rotational velocity has a maximum value of 225 km/s (140 mi/s) at 1,300 ly (82,000,000 AU) from the core, and it has its minimum possibly as low as 50 km/s (31 mi/s) at 7,000 ly (440,000,000 AU) from the core. Underlying the entire galaxy is a smooth distribution of cooler red stars that trace Andromeda’s evolution over billions of years. It is the only known spiral galaxy that can be seen naked eye from the earth. [13][14] The Andromeda Galaxy has a diameter of about 220,000 ly (67 kpc), making it the largest member of the Local Group in terms of extension, if not mass. If it gets confirmed then would be the first-ever found extragalactic planet. What would be the effect of this collision with our planet earth or solar system, is currently unknown. The current calculation based on the dynamical mass measurements shows that the mass of the Andromeda Galaxy is around 1.6 ×1042 kg. Even given the distance and how faint an object would be, a planet has been discovered orbiting a star in the Andromeda Galaxy. But the most distant known planets are. [105], Unlike the globular clusters of the Milky Way, which show a relatively low age dispersion, Andromeda Galaxy's globular clusters have a much larger range of ages: from systems as old as the galaxy itself to much younger systems, with ages between a few hundred million years to five billion years. [110] M32 has a young stellar population as well. Andromeda is best seen during autumn nights in the Northern Hemisphere when it passes high overhead, reaching its highest point around midnight in October, and two hours later each successive month. In 2006, Andromeda Galaxy's spheroid was determined to have a higher stellar density than that of the Milky Way,[51] and its galactic stellar disk was estimated at about twice the diameter of that of the Milky Way. This constitutes evidence that there is a vast, extended stellar disk that makes the galaxy more than 220,000 light-years (67 kiloparsecs) in diameter. Data from Chandra have been used to discover 26 black hole candidates in the Milky Way's galactic neighbor, Andromeda. 8 interesting facts about Andromeda. This page was last edited on 28 November 2020, at 14:00. [5] Averaged together, these distance estimates give a value of 2.54×10^6 ± 0.11×10^6 ly (1.606×1011 ± 7.0×109 AU). [107], Like the Milky Way, the Andromeda Galaxy has satellite galaxies, consisting of over 20 known dwarf galaxies. )[36] Baade also discovered that there were two types of Cepheid variable stars, which resulted in a doubling of the distance estimate to Andromeda, as well as the remainder of the universe. Galaksi ini merupakan salah satu galaksi di luar galaksi Bima Sakti yang dapat dilihat dengan mata telanjang pada malam yang cerah, tanpa bulan, dan tanpa polusi cahaya.. Strukturnya mirip dengan galaksi Bima Sakti yaitu berbentuk spiral. The fate of the Earth and the Solar System in the event of a collision is currently unknown. The best known and most readily observed satellite galaxies are M32 and M110. [38][39] The first radio maps of the galaxy were made in the 1950s by John Baldwin and collaborators at the Cambridge Radio Astronomy Group. Those arms, however, are not continuous and have a segmented structure. Before the galaxies merge, there is a small chance that the Solar System could be ejected from the Milky Way or join the Andromeda Galaxy. The spiral arms of the Andromeda Galaxy are outlined by a series of HII regions, first studied in great detail by Walter Baade and described by him as resembling "beads on a string". Based on its appearance in visible light, the Andromeda Galaxy is classified as an SA(s)b galaxy in the de Vaucouleurs–Sandage extended classification system of spiral galaxies. The planet's surface is mostly covered by water and jungle. This possible exoplanet would have a mass 6.34 times that of Jupiter. The nucleus consists of two concentrations separated by 1.5 pc (4.9 ly). [1] However, infrared data from the 2MASS survey and from the Spitzer Space Telescope showed that Andromeda is actually a barred spiral galaxy, like the Milky Way, with Andromeda's bar major axis oriented 55 degrees anti-clockwise from the disc major axis.[71]. 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